1. What is Dianabol?

Dianabol (72-63-9) is one of the androgenic-anabolic steroids with great popularity among the athletes and bodybuilders across the world.  It is widely used by for fitness and bodybuilding purposes making it very popular.  Some of the users refer to this steroid as the ‘’grand-daddy’’ of the other steroids. This is because of its immense and fast results. It is a hormone synthesized in the laboratories and related to the males’ natural testosterone hormone. This product is also known by other synonyms such as Metanabol, Averbol, Vetanabol, Naposin, and Dianabol.

2. How does Dianabol work?

The principal reason for CIBA to come up with this product was to enhance performance. The fact that it is a C17 steroid enables it to alter the testosterone by adding a double carbon bond. As a result, the steroid is able to last longer after administration.  The androgen rating in Dianabol ranges between 40 and 60. This rate is below the rating of testosterone which ranges at 100. Dianabol, however, has a stronger effect when it comes to protein synthesis as well as retention of nitrogen. This enhances the repairing and building of muscles in a faster rate enabling the users to realize very visible outcomes after a short time of usage.

Dianabol (72-63-9)also has a sticking characteristic and thus it can be used with other steroids to improve the results of workout routines. To further improve the effectiveness of this product, you can stack it.

 

The Ultimate Guide to Dianabol for Bodybuilding

 

3. Dianabol uses

Dianabol (72-63-9) as an anabolic steroid is characterized by the ability to enhance the process of protein synthesis as well as helping to shuttle amino acids into muscles. It plays a big role in the conservation of the amino acids that are already in the muscle. Both of these properties increase the amount of protein in the muscles.  As a result, the product helps in building hard muscles. Through the active ingredient in this product, the muscles are able to take up more amino acids and use them for the synthesis of proteins thus building more muscles.

As a result of prohormones and potent anabolic compounds found in this product, it stands out as one of the strongest products for bodybuilding in the market. This is because these compounds enable the product to be more effective and long-lasting. The bodybuilders can use this product for long cycles as a result.  This is because the long cycles with this product result in very positive and effective outcomes. This gives the bodybuilders solid and strong muscles as opposed to smooth muscles produced by androgens. Methenolone Enanthate vs Methenolone Acetate – Best Cutting Steroid

Dianabol is also used for the treatment of such diseases as arthritis, asthma, and breast cancer among others. Physicians may also apply this anabolic steroid in the treatment of wounds and body injuries.it can also treat patients suffering from some chronic catabolic conditions such as wasting disease and burns. It can also be used for the treatment of pituitary dwarfism. In addition, it is utilized in the chemotherapy sessions for the patients suffering from cancer.

Other than bodybuilders and athletes, Dianabol is very popular to people who go gym seeking fitness. Many of the ordinary citizens also use Dianabol for cosmetic purposes. Some statistics show that the use of this steroid by the average people goes beyond that of sportsmen and bodybuilders.

People suffering from Hypogonadism can also be treated using this steroid. Hypogonadism is a condition in which males suffer low levels of testosterone.

Since this steroid increases blood pressure, doctors can use it to treat some anemia conditions.

4. Dianabol dosage

As stated before, the primary administration of Dianabol is in form of tablets. The tablets are usually 20-25 mg. However, there exist injectable solutions of this steroid. The steroid is characterized by short half-life. This means that its retention is relatively low and for you to enhance the retention, you need to take the best Dianabol dosage.  You can take the dosage by daily splits. Some of the bodybuilders may be taking some dosages before their training or workout as it improves their workout sessions. This method is however used by veteran bodybuilders because of the Dianabol side effects.

It is also important to apply a good timing of Dianabol dosage.  For instance, bodybuilders may be recommended to take a dosage approximately one hour before taking workouts. When working with a doctor, the doctor may help you to have perfect timing depending on your status as well as the goals you need to achieve.

It is also advisable for Dianabol image takers to keep checking the levels of the steroid in their blood. This will help them to in ensuring their safety and good health. You should, therefore, follow the advice of your doctor while taking appropriate gaps or breaks in from one dosage to another. Also, avoid excessive intake of alcohol and sodium when under Dianabol dosage.

As an oral steroid, Dianabol has limited variations when it comes to dosages well as Dianabol cycles. When seeking to achieve any particular goals with this steroid, it may not be necessary to have high Dianabol dosages. This is because the product is highly potent and strong. Having this in mind, the following are some of the Dianabol dosages that you should pay attention to when taking this steroid:

· Dianabol dosage for beginners

If you are using Dianabol for your first time, the recommended dosage is between 15mg-30mg daily for the beginners. It would be advisable to begin by taking 15mg per day for the first two-three week band later increase to 30mg per day towards the last three weeks.

Splitting the dosage throughout the day would also be recommended because of the Dianabol half-life. This means taking, for instance, half of the dosage in the morning and taking the other half in the afternoon.

· Dianabol dosage for intermediate users

After the first 6-weeks cycle of Dianabol dosage, you may consider increasing the dosage to intermediate dosage. Under this dosage, you can take up to 30-50mg per day. You should start by taking 30mg per day at the beginning of your cycle and advance to 50m per day towards the end of the cycle.

· Dianabol usage for advanced users

Many people would stick to 50mg dosage is even when they reach the advanced level of Dianabol dosage. However, some veteran users may rise their dosages up to 75mg per day. You should note that such a dosage is for the experienced users as it may increase the chances of Dianabol side effects.

· Dianabol dosage for women

Many women take Dianabol in search of androgenic strength. However, there may be side effects such as voice changes, excessive growth of hair and acne among others.  It may also cause irregular menstrual cycles. As a result, women are advised to take low Dianabol dosages in order to decrease the chances of those side effects.  Depending on the status of a woman and their objectives, the dosage for them may range between 5mg-20mg.

 

The Ultimate Guide to Dianabol for Bodybuilding

 

5. Dianabol cycle

The Dianabol cycle may be categorized in three phases just as the dosages. These include the beginner’s cycle, the intermediate and the advanced cycle. Before getting into any cycle, it is important to understand the expected outcomes of the cycle. This will largely depend on your ultimate objective of taking the steroid. It is therefore important to keep a check on the concentration of Dianabol in a cycle as well as the length of the cycle. Once you establish your goals, it will be very easy to decide the best cycle for you at any given time.

· Beginners Dianabol cycle

While there are people who would prefer a Dianabol only cycle in the beginner’s cycle, others may opt to increase the effectiveness by stacking it with other steroids. Once you concentrate on Dianabol only cycle, you are likely to get results in a shorter time than when it is stacked with other boosters. However, a discontinuity of a Dianabol only cycle may lead to an immediate loss of the gained muscles. When it stacked, it may take some time for muscles progress to be achieved. Discontinuing of a stacked cycle has longer retention of the muscles. For beginners, the following beginners’ cycle may be applicable.

· Dianabol only cycle

This cycle is very common for beginners who have not had any previous experience with the steroids stacking. The Dianabol dosage for this cycle may range between 20mg-30mg per day. This cycle takes between four and six weeks. The users in this cycle need to observe a balanced diet. The dosage should be taken progressively from low to high, with a good track of the outcomes. The advantage of this cycle is that it is simple to follow and has fast results. It is also easy to manage the results as well as the side effects.

· Dianabol  and Test Sustanon

When stacking Dianabol with Test Sustanon, the most important thing is to ensure that the cycle remains very simple. Test Sustanon is suitable as the first steroid to stack with Dianabol since it suppresses the function of Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testes Axis (HPTA).

A Dbol/Test Sustanon cycle may look like this:

 

Week 1-4 Dianabol 20-25mgper day
Week 1-12  Test Sustanon 250-500mg per day

 

After this cycle, you should take 2-3 weeks to break up to the after which you should take a post-cycle therapy. You should take a Nolvadex dosage for two weeks in 40mg and 20mg per day for the two weeks respectively.

· Dianabol + Trenbolone

Trenbolone may be stacked with Dianabol in order to improve the bulking effect.  When used alone, Dianabol will still bring the bulking effect. However, it may result in water retention since it does not cut fat. This may cause such side effects as muscle bloating as the hard muscles are masked. Trenbolone is stacked with Dianabol to improve cutting.  The following pattern may be applicable for this cycle:

 

Week 1-4 Dianabol 20-25mgper day
Week 1-12  Trenbolone 20mg after every second day

 

After a two week break upon completion of this cycle, a post-cycle therapy from week 17 should be taken with a daily Nolvadex dosage of 20mg/20mg/40mg for two weeks. In addition to bulking,  Dianabol and trenbolone stacking result in a better lean body look.

· Dianabol +Deca Durabolin

Deca Durabolin is one of the anabolic steroids with a great effect in terms of bulking up of muscles. This steroid works steadily with its levels rising slowly. After discontinuing Dianabol in the cycle, this steroid takes up helping your progress in muscle building. In a cycle where Dianabol is stacked with Deca Durabolin, it is advisable to add in the dosage the Test E to monitor them and maintain a safe range of testosterone. This cycle can be taken in the following pattern:

 

Week  1-4 Dianabol 20-25mg per day
Week 1-12 Deca Durabolin 200mg per day
Week 1-12 Test E 400mg per week

 

· Dianabol + Anvar

These two steroids, when taken together, may increase the hepatotoxicity properties in them. As a result, they should be taken separately to create the overlapping effect in the cycle. It is advisable to add a weekly dosage of Test E in 500 mg per week. This cycle may be taken as follows:

 

Week  1-2 Dianabol 20-25mg per day
Week 1-12 Anvar 50mg per day
Week 1-12 Test E 500mg per week

 

A post-cycle therapy should be performed between the 9th and 11th week. This therapy should be taken with a daily 200mg dosage of Nolvadex.

· Intermediate Dianabol cycle

The intermediate cycle can be taken once one has had a successful beginners cycle. In this cycle, one may add more stacks for more effective results. An intermediate cycle may run from 8 to 14 weeks. An example of such a cycle may take Deca Durabolin, Dianabol and Test Capionate in the following pattern:

 

Week  1-6 Dianabol 20mg per day
Week 1-12 Deca Durabolin 400mg per day
Week 1-11 Test Capionate 600mg per week

 

· The advanced Dianabol Cycle

The advanced Dianabol cycle may be used by the advanced users to receive a high rate of results. This cycle contains a wide variety of steroid supplements that can be used for stacking. Unlike the beginners and the intermediate cycles, the advanced cycle may run up to 20 weeks. It also involves higher dosages.  The following is an example of an advanced Dianabol cycle:

 

Week 1-6 Dianabol 100mg per day
Week 1-10 Trenbolone Propionate 100mg per week
Week 1-10 Deca Durabolin 500mg per day
Week 1-10 Teat Ethantate 1000mg per week

 

Other legal supplements that can be used in the advanced Dianabol cycle include:

  • Trenorol (Trenbolone Propionate)
  • Test-Max (Test Ethantate)
  • Decaduro (Deca Durabolin)
  • D-bal (Dianabol)

The advantage of this cycle is that it results in massive gains in muscle building. However, this cycle may be risky for some people and it is prone to side effects. Due to high levels of estrogen associated with high dosage, the users may be advised to take such inhibitors as an Aromatase Inhibitor.

For whichever Dianabol cycle you are following, it is very important for one to stick to the schedule without taking overdoses. It is also important to have it in mind that there are many ways in which stacking Dianabol can be performed other than the above patterns.

 

The Ultimate Guide to Dianabol for Bodybuilding

 

6. Dianabol results 

Dianabol is a fantastic steroid wit ability to give amazing gains when taken in the appropriate way. It also requires proper post-cycle therapy. The steroid takes a short time of between 1-3 hours to get into the bloodstream. That’s why it is recommended to be taken some hours before workouts.  In order to have steady Dianabol bodybuilding results, it is advisable that one maintains a proper diet and a manageable workouts schedule. Masteron Propionate or Masteron Enanthate? Which one is better for you?

The beginners can expect to see some noticeable results as short as after the first week of their cycle. It is possible to gain up to 4-7lbs after the first week. This will also give an increase in strength. These results may come in the second week for some of the users since the results do not occur similarly to all the users.

The results may rise up to 8-12lbs after the second week. These muscles have more weight and strength as compared to the first results.  This also improves your workout performance as a result of increased strength.

By the fourth-week of Dianabol dosage, a great physique transformation is expected in your body. With proper training and proper diet, you may expect to a gain of up to 15-20lbs. Most users opt to stop their cycles at this point. This is because of the risk of the side effects associated with dosages beyond this point.

People who extend the dosage further are expected to achieve even more spectacular results. For instance, by the eighth week, one is able to do extreme workouts in the gym and complete every set successfully with great ease. By the end of the week, you may gain up to 25-35lbs.

The usage of Dianabol may result in gaining weight. However, the amount and rate of weight gain may be affected by such factors as your workouts, the diet, the stacked steroids potency as well as your age.

As such, guys are able to compare their Dianabol before and after results which shows very impressive outcomes. These before and after results may include getting masculine for guys who were initially skinny, if a person was masculine before Dianabol, the after results may be having a jacked body while those who had jacked bodies gain mass thus become huge. However, people who have had an already established a base in bodybuilding and take serious training sessions may achieve these results more easily.

· Dianabol side effects

Just like any other anabolic steroid, Dianabol bodybuilding practice is characterized by some side effects. These side effects may be affected mostly by the dosage and age among other factors. The side effects may be mild or even severe. Here are some of the Dianabol side effects that you may expect when you take Dianabol:

  • Liver toxicity
  • Virilisation
  • High blood pressure
  • Water retention
  • Male pattern baldness
  • High blood pressure
  • Gynecomastia

 

· Managing Dianabol side effects

While there may be the above side effects associated with Dianabol, these side effects are very manageable and should not be a stumbling block to achieving your bodybuilding goals. The following are some of the ways in which these side effects may be avoided:

  • Taking smaller doses

As seen earlier, most of the Dianabol side effects are as a result of excess dosages. Decreasing the intake to safe dosages will reduce the chances of most of Dianabol side effects.

  • Use of an Aromatase inhibitor

This inhibitor reduces the chances of Dianabol breaking down into estrogen upon getting into the body. Increased estrogen in the male’s body may result in some unwanted effects such as the increased size of the breasts.

  • Appropriate usage of the steroid

The best way to use Dianabol is following keenly the instructions given by the doctor and following the cycle properly. This will not only reduce the side effects but also maximizes the Dianabol gains.

  • Intake of testosterone

Dianabol cycles may also cause a reduction of testosterone for some men. Their bodies in such cases produce reduced amounts of testosterone. This can be treated by taking testosterone supplements.

7. Dianabol half-life

A half-life of a drug refers to the time it takes for the body to absorb the drug and eliminate up to a half of its amount. Dianabol half-life ranges between 2-3 hours. This means that the Dianabol dosage can be taken in small doses throughout the day to ensure availability in the blood. These doses may be administered trice or even four times a day. Due to the varied concentrations of the steroid in the blood, a user should understand this half-life in order to time the dosages appropriately

If for instance, you decide to take a daily 20mg of Dianabol for four weeks, assuming that it has a half-life of four hours, the following will be the concentration variations in of Dianabol the blood:

In such a dosage, a person may decide to split the dosage into four parts in one day, thus takes a 5mg dose in 4-hour intervals, starting from 6 AM. Four hours after the first dose, (10 AM), the concentration will be at 2.5mg in the blood.  This will rise to 7.5mg after the second dose.  By the third dose, (2 PM) the concentration will be at 3.75mg which will again rise to 8.75mg after the third dose. By 6 PM, there will be 4.375mg. This will rise to 9.75mg after the fourth dose.  After this, the concentration will decrease by half after every four hours such that it will be at  4.875mg by 10 PM, 2.45 by 2 AM and finally at 1.2mg by 6 AM HRS when the next dose is taken. Trenbolone Enanthate vs Trenbolone Acetate (Which one Wins?)

With such a pattern, the person is able to ensure that there is a constant supply of the steroid in the system. This means that there is a good supply before the workouts, which is then topped up after the workout by taking another dose. However, there will be a 4mg of Dianabol in the system between the last dose and the first dose in the next day. All of this is not utilized.

In another pattern, a person may decide to take the 20mg of Dianabol at 2 PM prior to his workouts at 4 PM. So by midnight, his levels will be at 2.5mg, and by the next dosage, the steroid will be completely eliminated in the system. In this dosage, the person has lower concentrations of Dianabol within the day than in the first pattern.

In the two patterns, there is maintenance of high levels of Dianabol at the most important periods of the users’ day. This means enough concentration prior to training, during and after the training.

Having a good knowledge of Dianabol half-life is therefore very crucial in the management of your dosages as well as timing them. This provides you with very effective use of Dianabol for better results.

8. Dianabol Benefits

The following are some of the Dianabol benefits associate with Dianabol bodybuilding:

· Convenience

As an oral steroid, Dianabol users do not need to be injected. This also helps the users to easily manage their dosage. For those who prefer injections, there also exist injectable solutions of this steroid, making it very convenient for different people’s preferences.

· Retention of Nitrogen

For the growth of skeletal muscles, nitrogen plays a very important role. The body needs to have enough amount of nitrogen levels in order to have an effective muscle building process.

· Glycogenesis

Dianabol also enhances the process of glycogenesis. Glycogenesis process involves breaking down glycogen into glucose. This increases the glucose levels in the system resulting in high energy levels in the body.

· Increase testosterone levels

When the levels of testosterone are increased in the body, the body receives many advantages associated with this hormone. These include s speeding of the recovery time after workouts, enhancing the sex drive and muscular growth among others.

· Protein synthesis

Dianabol also increases the rate at which the body builds proteins in the cells. Proteins also play a big role in the building of muscles since they act as building blocks for protein n synthesis

· Increased production of Red blood cells

Dianabol also improves the rate at which the body produces red blood cells. Red blood cells help in the supply of oxygen in the body. As a result, one is able to attack the workouts more aggressively and with great stamina.

· Reduction of fatigue

Dianabol has the ability to reduce fatigue during workouts.  This is due to the increased levels of testosterone in the body. As a result, users are able to train in harder sessions and for a longer time.

· Great gains in muscle mass and strength

With Dianabol, it is possible for beginners to gain up to 20-30lbs of hard muscles within the first 6-8 weeks cycle. Experienced users of this steroid are able to gain even better results from such a cycle.

· Short cycles

Another Dianabol benefit is that it involves short cycles. While most of the other steroids involve long cycles for one to realize results, with Dianabol stacks, short cycles of 4-6 weeks may result into notable changes.

With Dianabol benefits, it is easy for one to become a god in fitness or bodybuilding without very much hassle. To benefit fully from the Dianabol benefits, one needs to be careful in terms of the cycle schedules to avoid messing up. Otherwise, Dianabol can guarantee you very good results.

 

Testosterone Cypionate Everything a Bodybuilder Should Know

 

9. Dianabol Reviews

There is evidence that Dianabol is and continues to be a very effective anabolic steroid of among the bodybuilding communities and sportsmen. Happy users are always willing to share their experiences and satisfaction they get from this steroid in their Dianabol reviews. The positive reviews given by the veteran, intermediate and beginner users shows that this steroid is truly reliable. Here are some of the few Dianabol reviews from some of the users:

Keith: Keith had been for time using anabolic steroids until a friend of him introduced him to the Dianabol steroid. Having been a veteran in the usage of steroids, he had already built a good mass of muscles by the time he was introduced to Dianabol.

Having hit a plateau phase with his previous steroids, Keith was seeking for something to give him some additional mass in his muscles. With frequent advice from his doctor, Keith was able to achieve his exact goals very fast with Dianabol. Keith has so far not experienced any severe side effects and promises to continue using Dianabol in his journey to bodybuilding.

Jack: Jack was introduced to Dianabol to by his boss. As a cyclist, though he wanted to become strong, he had no intentions in bodybuilding. When his boss suggested Dianabol for him, he was cynical the first time. Jack had a belief that the steroid was only used for bodybuilding purposes. That was not he was after.

After finishing his first Dianabol cycle, Jack did not have any desirable changes and he had some severe side effects.  He was almost giving up when his boss advised him to consult his doctor. The doctor realized that Jack had been taking very heavy dosages and his diet was not good enough to support this kind of dosage. The doctor also included the Aromatise Inhibitor in his next cycle.

Jack took another cycle, this time being monitored by his doctor and with the addition of inhibitors and post-Cycle therapy. He started to gain positive results by the fourth week. He was able to perform his training more easily and also gained a lean look of his body. Jack is very happy for these results and intends to continue using Dianabol for his training.

Anthony: After breaking his back some months ago, Anthony who was a nut in the gym before then had to stop going to the gym. Eventually, he started to gain more weight after one month until he was challenged by his wife.

Anthony had to conduct some research in order come up with the best stacking that could help him restore his previous state within a very short time. He finally found out that Dianabol stacks worked very well for many people. Anthony decided to buy the Dianabol stacks and yes! It worked for him.

At week 4 Anthony is having an easy time in his workouts and has already started to lose significant fat and weight. Anthony is very happy with this cycle says he would highly recommend this product to a friend.

Frank: Frank just completed his sixth week with a daily dose of 40mg per day. He is happy to have gained a total of 12lbs of muscle mass with his first cycle. He is also happy that his girlfriend has noticed this and complimented his new look.

Frank followed keenly the advice from his gym trainer and maintained a huge diet throughout the cycle, which he says contributed greatly to his massive achievement.  Frank did not have any side effects with his dosage despite being skeptical at the beginning of his Dianabol dosage.

Frank also enjoys great strength and high energy levels he gained with Dianabol helping him to carry out hard training which could last for a long time.

10.  Dianabol for sale

Being one of the most popular steroids for bodybuilding among the veteran bodybuilders and those getting introduced in the bodybuilding community, Dianabol for sale is very available despite most of the initial companies stopping the production of this product. In most countries, it is still produced under names such as Methabol, Anabol, Naposim, and Methadieone.  It is also important to note that Dianabol has been categorized as a controlled product. As a result, it may be illegal in some countries that can be found as either an underground lab product or pharmaceutical grade product.

Pharmaceutical grade Dianabol for sale is produced by FDA authorized pharmaceutical companies where the Dianabol manufacturer and Dianabol supplier have to satisfy some FDA requirements. These requirements revolve around the concentration of raw materials as well as the process of production. These could be the best places to buy Dianabol since the product is put under test and is controlled therefore fit for human consumption. They are also of very high quality because they have guaranteed sterility and purity. These steroids are also sold at a relatively higher price than the underground lab (UGL) Dianabol.

Underground lab Dianabol, on the other hand, is produced by unauthorized manufacturers. These labs mostly specialize in the production of the anabolic steroids. Such laboratories could be located in someone’s home, garage or a basement of a building. The advantage associated with the underground lab Dianabol is that they are found in large quantities and cost much less than the pharmaceutical grade steroids. However, the quality and purity of these are not always guaranteed. It is upon the decision of an individual to either buy Dianabol from legal Dianabol manufacturer or supplier or buy from the black market. This depends on the individual’s tastes and preferences.

Whether you want to buy a pharmaceutical grade or underground lab Dianabol, the products are generally sold at a lower price than most of the other types of steroids. This makes them very popular. However, the prices of Dianabol for sale are not always similar. This is because of differences in such factors the drug concentration per tablet (for instance mg tablet, 10mg tablet, 50mg tablet etc.), among many other factors. The difference in the prices between the UGL Dianabol for sale and the Pharmaceutical Dianabol is also not very dramatic.

Another source where you can buy Dianabol for sale is from the online shops. There are many websites from which Dianabol is sold across the world. It is more convenient to buy Dianabol online since it more convenient than from the other sources. When you decide to Buy Dianabol online, it is always important to make sure that you buy from a legit website. You can research to find out the most reputable sellers online. You should also read the customer Dianabol reviews on such websites to know how the customers feel about them. This also helps you to ensure that you only buy the best quality of the steroid.

11. Dianabol for bodybuilding- Summary

Dianabol remains to be the most favorable among the steroids used for fitness and bodybuilding. The product comes with many advantages in terms of its functions and the way it works.  It is also used for many other medical purposes apart from bodybuilding and fitness. Dianabol for bodybuilding needs to be taken in the right dosages in order to achieve the maximum benefits. The bodybuilders also need to stick to their Dianabol bodybuilding cycles with frequent advice from their trainers or doctors.

Dianabol results are always very impressive if the drug is used properly.  It is also important to time Dianabol dosages based on Dianabol half-life. This ensures effective utilization of the drug in the body.

People seeking to purchase Dianabol should also be aware of the options available in the market before they buy. These options include Pharmaceutical grade Dianabol, UGL as well as online sources. Conducting good research and reading the customer Dianabol; reviews are also crucial before you Buy Dianabol for sale.

With this in mind, you are sure to get the best out of Dianabol for bodybuilding.

 

References:

  1. Taylor N. William, M.D Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed, (2002); p.117Gerber Larry; The Truth About Steroids, (2013) p.13
  2. Frattasio Adam; Steroid Man: Confessions of a Powerlifter from the Golden Age of Enhancement (2016).  p.36, p.67, p.82, p.99
  3. Shannon Knudsen;Rise Above,(2016)p.35
  4. Deuker Carl; Gym Candy (2008) p.146, p.157.
  5. Thomas John A.; Drugs, Athletes, and Physical Performance (2012), p.98.
  6. Denera Tony; Joining Arnold: Rise of the Girlie Man (2012) ,
  7. Kochakian Charles D.; Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (2012), p.16, p.420, p.523